Patterns of entrainment: Being out of sync, in sync, and in between

In order to investigate a previously uncharted range of dyadic entrainment
behaviors, we conducted a dyadic tapping study on resisting entrainment.
Participants were asked to maintain their own tempo while
interacting with their tapping partner. Different patterns of entrainment
emerged, but trials were often either highly entrained or not at all. As expected,
initial tempo difference between the participants was the main
factor determining whether a trial was entrained or not, but a clear
threshold was not found. Musical training, but not individual rhythmic
skill or personality traits, had an effect. Surprisingly, participants with
musical training were more likely to entrain even over a large tempo difference,
perhaps owing to their training in playing together and learned
aesthetic preferences.

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Keywords: entrainment; interaction; synchronization; non-musician;